If you want to become a permanent resident of Canada, you have a few alternatives depending on your personal circumstances and settlement objectives. First, you must determine whether you will immigrate to Canada as an economic or family class immigrant. Also, if you do not have close relatives in Canada, you should look for other available options. There are more than 100 economic-class immigration programs available for individuals with no close relatives in Canada.
There are a few different methods to qualify for these programs, which will be customized for those coming to Canada to develop a career under the economic class. As a result, the program requirements will consider both your academic achievements and your job experience. In addition, even if English is your native language, your language skills will be essential. Before joining the labour market, it is frequently advantageous to get Canadian experience. According to studies, immigrants having a prior job and school experience in Canada can increase their earning potential.
Study and Post Grad Work Permit
A study permit is required if you wish to study in Canada. Once you've received a letter of admission from a Canadian university, you may apply for one. Study permits allow you to lawfully attend school in Canada while working part-time throughout the school year and full-time during academic holidays. In addition, a Canadian education from a Designated Learning Institution is required for some immigration programs (DLI).
Many of these programs will qualify you for a three-year Post-Graduation Work Permit (PGWP), which will allow you to work in Canada. This combination of job and academic experience will pave the way for a variety of immigration options. However, if you have completed your education and want to work in Canada, you have a variety of alternatives, especially if you are a citizen of the United States.
Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA)
The CUSMA, formerly known as NAFTA, makes it simpler for Americans to work in Canada. For example, if you can travel to Canada on a CUSMA work visa, your Canadian company avoids the time-consuming and costly Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA) process. These CUSMA work permits are divided into four categories:
CUSMA Professionals — To be a CUSMA Professional, you must be qualified to work in one of over 60 selected professions and have CUSMA pre-arranged employment in Canada in an occupation that fits your qualifications.
CUSMA Intra-Company Transfers: To work for a branch, subsidiary, or affiliate of their U.S. employer, CUSMA Intra-Company Transferees must be temporarily transferred to Canada. They must have a position that is managerial, executive, or requires specialized expertise.
CUSMA Traders - A CUSMA Trader must show that they intend to conduct significant commerce in products or services between Canada and the United States. In addition, the trader must be a supervisor or executive or have responsibilities that need key abilities.
Investors in CUSMA - A CUSMA Investor must show that they have made a significant investment in a new or existing Canadian business and intend to develop and direct that firm in Canada. Employees of the main Investor who are considered essential personnel may also be given work permits under the CUSMA Investor category. There are alternative work permit possibilities for you if you do not fit into any of these categories or if you are a U.S. resident with citizenship in another nation.
International Mobility Program (IMP) and Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP)
The main distinction between work permits issued under the Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP) and those issued under the International Mobility Program (IMP) is the requirement for a Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA). Employers in Canada complete the LMIA process to get TFWP work permits. A positive LMIA is essentially a document demonstrating that hiring a foreign worker will positively or will have a neutral impact on the Canadian labour market. For example, employers will frequently be required to show that they advertised the open position for a specific period and that no domestic worker was available to fill it.
The TFWP's mission is to close gaps in the labour market. The IMP, on the other hand, aims to widen Canada's economic, social, and cultural interests. Therefore, an LMIA is not required for these work permits. The IMPs work permits are primarily based on bilateral agreements with other countries, such as CUSMA. The Global Talent Stream, which has a two-week processing period and provides a path to Canada for H-1B visa holders in the United States, is another example of this scheme. These are just a few ideas on how to visit Canada temporarily. For individuals who desire to move to the United States permanently, there are a variety of immigration schemes accessible.
Canada Express Entry Program
Programs such as the FSWP (Federal Skilled Worker Program), FSTP (the Federal Skilled Trades Program), and CEC (the Canadian Experience Class) are all managed by the Express Entry System (an online application management system). Even though the pandemic has caused delays in most of these programs, Express Entry was designed to provide a faster path to permanent residency than the traditional paper-based application procedure. For example, the usual processing time for 80% of applicants was six months, but the epidemic has forced most lines of businesses to focus on CEC applications, pushing the rest to the back burner.
For candidates who are already in Canada, the CEC is the best option under Express Entry Program. Under this program, candidates must have at least one year of Canadian work experience in a skilled occupation as one of the significant qualifying criteria. Although job experience in Canada is prized under the Express Entry points system, it is not necessary to be eligible for the FSWP.
You must have one year of continuous skilled job experience, a CLB 7 in English or French, and an education certificate to be eligible for the FSWP. You must also score 67 out of 100 on the FSWP points grid to be eligible for the program, which is different from Express Entry's Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS). The presence of a job offer is not required.
The FSTP is for skilled trades employees who have worked full-time in a qualifying occupation for at least two years. They must also have a legitimate employment offer in Canada for at least one year along with a certificate of qualification in a skilled trade issued by a Canadian provincial, territorial, or federal government, among other requirements.
Through the Express Entry program, the top-scoring candidates are encouraged to apply for Canadian permanent residency. Without an Invitation to Apply (ITA), you would not be able to apply for permanent residency. Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) under the Canada's immigration service, send out invites regularly. If your CRS score isn't good enough to get you an ITA, you might be able to get a provincial nomination to help you with your Express Entry application.
Provincial Nominee Program (Canada PNP)
Except for Nunavut and Quebec, almost every province and territory in Canada has a Provincial Nominee Program (PNPs). PNPs are divided into "enhanced" programs that work in tandem with Express Entry and "base" programs operated under the Express Entry system. Candidates for enhanced programs are drawn from the Express Entry pool. If you get a provincial nomination through one of these PNPs, your total score will be increased by 600 CRS points. This reward will propel you to the top of the pool, putting you in a position to obtain an ITA in a later Express Entry draw.
Base PNPs function a little differently than Express Entry and might be a good alternative for those who aren't qualified for Express Entry. To apply for a base PNP, you must first apply to the province, and if you are eligible, you will be nominated. You can then apply to the federal government for permanent residency after you get your certificate.
Citizens and permanent residents of Canada have the option of sponsoring their spouse, common-law partner, children, parents, and grandparents. Only certain relatives, such as a brother, sister, aunt, or uncle, can be sponsored by Canadians. They are unable to sponsor relatives who are deemed ineligible due to criminal or medical reasons.
Spouses and common-law partners can be sponsored either from inside Canada or from outside the nation. To be eligible, you must be at least 18 years old and in a committed, genuine relationship with a Canadian who can financially support you and any children you may have. Citizens of Canada can sponsor from overseas, but permanent residents must be present in Canada. If you both choose to wait out the procedure in Canada, you might be able to acquire a spousal Open Work Permit as the foreign spouse or common-law partner.
Parents and Grandparents Program (PGP)
Parents and grandparents of Canadians can apply for permanent residency under the Parents and Grandparents Program (PGP). The program works like a draw, with a brief intake window when IRCC receives interest in sponsor forms, followed by invitation to apply for permanent residency. The Super Visa, an alternative to the PGP, enables parents and grandparents to stay in Canada for up to two years at a time. Canadians who are under the age of 22 can also sponsor their biological or adoptive children.
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